Renesanso literatūros prošvaistės

Renesanso literatūroje užsimezgė naujas žanras – novelė, kurią XIV amžiuje pradėjo italų humanistas Džiovanis Bokačis. Italijos meno formos vėliau plito po visą Europą, apėmė pirmiausia Prancūziją, Vokietiją, Ispaniją, Angliją, kitas šalis. Novelė – trumpas ir greitas pasakojimas sparčiai išplito po visą Europą dekameronišku stiliumi. Prancūzai perėmė novelę vienaip, ispanai kiek kitaip ir t.t. Neatsitiktinai novelė daugelyje tautų tapo linksma humoristine pasakojimo forma, kurioje persipynė liaudiniai pasakojimai bei tradicijos.

Vėlyvesniajame renesanse literatūra ėmė tobulėti ir plėstis, radosi žymesnių ir sudėtingesnių literatūros kūrinių. Vienas iš jų – Rablė Garagantiua ir Pantagriuelis, kuriame buvo išjuokta sugedusi kunigija, teisėjų luomas ir visi kiti sugedę reiškiniai. Panašią funkciją atlieka ir Servanteso Don Kichotas – žymiausias ispanų literatūros kūrinys, parašytas vėlyvuoju renesanso laikotarpiu. 

Renesanso literatūra tapo kandžios plunksnos lauku, į kurį buvo įtraukiami visi reiškiniai, kuriuos norima išjuokti, ypač tai, kas atgyveno viduramžiuose. Renesanso literatūroje taip pat figūruoja tiek konkrečios tautos liaudiniai, tiek bendriniai antikiniai motyvai, kuriuos norima buvo prikelti, renesanso literatūra, nors ir labai šelmiška ir tiesmuka, tuo pačiu labai intelektuali, ten vyrauja begalė figūrų ir palyginimų.

Ispanijoje renesanso laikotarpiu prasidėjo aukso amžius ir literatūros atgimimas, susiformavo vadinamasis šelmių romanas, arba pikareska (ispaniškai pikaro reiškia šelmis). Šelmių romanų veikėjai yra patrakę šelmiai, studentai, plėšikai, avantiūristai, klaidžiojantys po pasaulį ir išdarinėjantys šelmiškus dalykus, kovojantys prieš tuometinę sistemą. Tai dažniausiai žavingi herojai, išdarinėjantys visokias linksmas šelmystes, vertas ištisų novelių ar net romanų.

Šelmių tipo literatūra labiau išpilto po pietų tipo romanų šalis, taip pat lotynų Amerikoje. Anglų literatūroje šelmių literatūra neišplito, nors būta tokių autorių, kurie irgi rašė šelmiškai, sekdami Servantesu ar Rablė. Šitaip rašė Henris Fildingas, taip pat šitaip buvo parašytos Guliverio kelionės. Vis tik anglų literatūroje šelmystės reiškiasi jau santūriau, ne taip nežabotai.

Vokiečių kultūroje šelmių literatūra visiškai neprigijo ir nėra jokių žymesnių šelmių tipo humoristinių kūrinių. Galbūt tai tiesiog per rimta kultūra.

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